Crossover Methodology: A near-death-experience can occur under On this site we focus on NDEs which occurred during cardiac arrest which most resembles actual death. We pay particular attention to those who have also had a verified out-of-body experience - the most definitive proof of an NDE.
Peter Fenwick & Elizabeth Fenwick
The Truth in the Light: An Investigation of over 300 Near-Death Experiences
White Crow Books, published first edition 1997 / Amazon book link
Jeffrey Long, MD with Paul Perry
Evidence of the Afterlife: The Science of Near-Death Experiences/
Harper Collins, published 2010 / Amazon book link
Bruce Greyson, M.D.
The Near-Death Experience Scale: Construction, Reliability, and Validity
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (1983) pp 369-375
Such states include cardiac arrest (clinical death), shock after loss of blood, coma due to traumatic brain injury or intra-cerebral hemorrhage, and drowning.
a number of conditions.
In prospective studies, individuals are followed over time and data about them is collected as their characteristics or circumstances change. In retrospective studies, individuals are sampled and information is collected about their past.
Above and to your left, you will find a compilation of the three most important retrospective near-death studies that have been published. You will see there is overlap in most, but not all the elements of a near-death experience these researchers were measuring. There will be variation in methodology and influences of bias between any studies, but due to the focus of the studies subject, the consistency in outcomes they are measuring and the timeframe they were conducted, it is reasonable to blend these results utilizing a weighted average.
The combined number of participants in these study, and the quality of the sourcing of information underscores the statistical significance of their findings. Learn more about statistical significance and how it relates to the massive database of research amassed over five decades underpinning their findings.
Below are links to research that were published in book or peer reviewed form.