Crossover Methodology: A near-death-experience can occur under On this site we focus on NDEs which occurred during cardiac arrest which most resembles actual death. We pay particular attention to those who have also had a verified out-of-body experience - the most definitive proof of an NDE.
Pim van Lomell et al,
Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands The Lancet (2001) pp 2039-2045
Parnia, Fenwick et al,
A qualitative and quantitative study of the incidence, features and aetiology of near death experiences in cardiac arrest survivors / Resuscitation (2001) pp 149-156
Schwaninger, Schechtman, et al,
Journal of Near-Death Studies (2002) pp 215-232
Bruce Greyson, M.D.
General Hospital Psychiatry (2003) pp 269 –276
Such states include cardiac arrest (clinical death), shock after loss of blood, coma due to traumatic brain injury or intra-cerebral hemorrhage, and drowning.
a number of conditions.
In prospective studies, individuals are followed over time and data about them is collected as their characteristics or circumstances change. In retrospective studies, individuals are sampled and information is collected about their past.
Above and to your left, you will find a compilation of the four most important prospective near-death studies that have been published. You will see there is overlap in most, but not all the elements of a near-death experience these researchers were measuring. There will be variation in methodology and influences of bias between any studies, but due to the focus of the studies subject, the consistency in outcomes they are measuring and the timeframe they were conducted, it is reasonable to blend these results utilizing a weighted average.
The combined number of participants in these study, and the quality of the sourcing of information underscores the statistical significance of their findings. Learn more about statistical significance and how it relates to the massive database of research amassed over five decades underpinning their findings. Read and download these fascinating reports below.